Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901. She was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors, and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover.
of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Empress of India
24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901
24 May 1819
22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Isle of Wight
4 February 1901
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1 The Princess Victoria
21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901
Married 1858, Friedrich III, German Emperor and King of Prussia
had 8 children.
2 King Edward VII
9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910
Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark
had 6 children.
3 The Princess Alice
25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878
Married 1862, Ludwig IV Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
had 7 children.
4 The Prince Alfred
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh
6 August 1844 – 31 July 1900
Married 1874, Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia
had 5 children.
5 The Princess Helena
25 May 1846 – 9 June 1923
Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig Holstein-Sonderburg Augustenburg
had 5 children.
6 The Princess Louise
18 March 1848 – 3 December 1939
Married 1871, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
7 The Prince Arthur
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942
Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
had 3 children.
8 The Prince Leopold
Duke of Albany
7 April 1853 – 28 March 1884
Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont
had 2 children.
9 The Princess Beatrice
14 April 1857 – 26 October 1944
Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg
had 4 children
Duke of Kent and Strathearn
House of Hanover
In 1818 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage. The Duke and Duchess of Kent’s only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London
Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace. She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents Emperor Alexander I of Russia and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta were dropped on the instructions of the Duke’s eldest brother, George, the Prince Regent.
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III. Victoria’s father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive.
As a child, Victoria ate a simple diet, retired early, and was given plenty of opportunity to exercise in the fresh air. Princess Victoria was very fond of her many pets (though she teased the canaries), of playing dressing up, and riding horses – the faster the better.
The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria’s mother in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess’s capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria’s 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.
Victoria later described her childhood as “rather melancholy” Her only friends were her elder sister Princess Feodora of Leiningen who moved away when Victoria was 9 to be married to Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Louise Lehzen her governess.
Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called “Kensington System”, an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess’s lover and Victorias true father.
The “Kensington System” prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (most of her father’s family) and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William’s illegitimate children, and perhaps prompted the emergence of Victorian morality by insisting that her daughter avoid any appearance of sexual impropriety.
Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash. Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin, but she spoke only English at home.
Lehzen slipped a copy of the genealogy of the House of Hanover into one of the princess’s lesson books. After perusing it for some time, Victoria came to see that her father had been next in line after the king, and that Queen Adelaide had no surviving children. This was the first time Victoria came to realise the destiny that had been assumed by many since her birth that she would be the next British monarch. After a pause, Victoria is reported to have said “I will be good.”
At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence. hile Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.
As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff. Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother’s household
By 1836, the Duchess’s brother, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry his niece to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold Victoria’s mother and Albert’s father Ernest I, of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha were siblings. Leopold arranged for Victoria’s mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.
William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.
After the visit she wrote, “[Albert] is extremely handsome his hair is about the same colour as mine his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful.” Alexander, on the other hand was “very plain”
Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold, whom Victoria considered her “best and kindest adviser” to thank him “for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me in the person of dear Albert … He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind and so good.
Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.
In her diary she wrote, “I was awoke at 6 o’clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen.”
Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.
The coronation took place on 28 June 1838, just over a year after she succeeded to the throne at the age of 18. The procession to and from the ceremony at Westminster Abbey was witnessed by unprecedentedly huge crowds, as the new railways made it easier for an estimated 400,000 to come to London from the rest of the country
The ceremony cost £79,000 (£6.53 million as of 2016) which exceeded the £30,000 (£2.5 million as of 2016) spent on that of her uncle and predecessor, William IV, in 1831 but was far less than the £240,000 (£18.8 million as of 2016) for the grandiose coronation of his brother George IV in 1821.
The procession by coach of 1831 was again adopted in 1838, and has been followed in all subsequent coronations. The road route was extended to allow for more spectators, taking a nearly circular route from the Queen’s new home at the just-completed Buckingham Palace via Hyde Park Corner, Piccadilly, St James’s Street, Pall Mall, Charing Cross and Whitehall. It was the longest coronation procession since that of Charles II in 1660
The whole coronation service lasted five hours and involved two changes of dress for the Queen. One accident that turned to the advantage of the Queen is described in her journal: “Poor old Ld Rolls [Lord Rolle],is 82, & dreadfully infirm, fell, in attempting to ascend the steps, — rolled right down, but was not the least hurt. When he attempted again to ascend the steps, I advanced to the edge, in order to prevent another fall”
The reaction of the diarist Charles Greville, who was
present, was typical of the wider public…
At the end of the service the Treasurer of the Household threw silver Coronation medals to the crowd, causing an undignified scramble for the souvenirs. The quality of the coronation music did nothing to dispel the lacklustre impression of the ceremony. The music was directed by Sir George Smart, who attempted to conduct and play the organ simultaneously the result was less than effective.
The new queen wrote a very full account of the events in her journals…
At the time of her accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The prime minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice
At the start of her reign Victoria was popular, but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother’s ladies in waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out of wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.
Victoria believed the rumours. She hated Conroy, and despised “that odious Lady Flora” because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System. At first, Lady Flora refused a naked medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin. Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen. At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as “Mrs. Melbourne”
In 1838, aged approximately 14, Jones entered Buckingham Palace disguised as a chimney sweep. He was caught by a porter in the Marble Hall and and captured by the police in St James’s Street with Queen Victoria’s underwear stuffed down his trousers. He was brought before Queen Square Police Court on 14 December. It turned out that he had frequently mentioned his intention to enter the palace to his employer, a builder. He was acquitted by the jury
In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.
The Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household Many of the Queen’s ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria bjected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.
Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her. Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother’s close proximity promised “torment for many years” Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a “schocking alternative”
At dinner the Queen sitting next to an elderly admiral who was very hard of hearing asked about the repairs to a ship but the admiral did not catch her words. she tried a different conversation, “How is your sister?” “Ah,” said the admiral, realising what had first been said, “She’ll be fine, ma’am, when we turn her over and scrape the barnacles off her bottom!” The Queen was so overcome with laughter that she had to hide her face in her handkerchief.
Victoria showed interest in Albert’s education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock. Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.
They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James’s Palace. She selected a white dress which was considered an unusual choice at a time when colours were more usual, made from heavy silk satin. The Honiton lace used for her wedding dress proved an important boost to Devon lace-making. Queen Victoria has been credited with starting the tradition of white weddings and white bridal gowns, although she was not the first royal to be married in white.
Queen Victoria described her choice of dress in her journal…
Wearing white was quickly adopted by wealthy fashionable brides. The Godey’s Lady’s Book, commenting about a decade after Victoria’s wedding, wrote: “Custom has decided, from the earliest ages, that white is the most fitting hue, whatever may be the material. It is an emblem of the purity and innocence of girlhood, and the unsullied heart she now yields to the chosen one”
Victoria was besotted. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary
Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen’s companion, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life
Victoria’s mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. Through Albert’s mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.
After their marriage, Albert took on personal responsibility for decorating the christmas trees at Windsor Castle with wax candles and sweets such as barley sugar and sugar plums. These were actually caraway or aniseed comfits, covered with boiled sugar and crafted into the shape of a plum. A little wire ‘stalk’ at the top made them convenient for hanging on trees.
Victoria was as enamoured with Christmas as her husband..
During Victoria’s first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or as he later claimed, the guns had no shot. He was tried for high treason, found not guilty on the grounds of insanity.
A physical appraisal of the queen was offered by a dinner guest during the first years of her reign. Shw stood about five feet tall and plump with the bulging blue eyes and protuberant chin “Her bust, like most English women’s, is very good, hands and feet are small and very pretty her mouth is generally a little open her teeth small and short, and she shows her gums when she laughs, which is rather disfiguring.”
Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant, viewed breast-feeding with disgust, and thought newborn babies were ugly.
A sketch of Vicky by Queen Victoria
Victoria’s household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen who had been a formative influence on Victoria. Albert, however thought Lehzen was incompetent, and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter’s health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842 and Victoria’s closerelationship with her ended
Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace. He was christened Albert Edward at St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842. He was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to his family
Mary Ann Brough was given the role of looking after the Prince and was at the Queen’s bedside when she gave birth. Several years after her position as the royal wet nurse had come to an end, Brough killed her six children with her husband’s razor blade and then attempted to take her own life
On 29 May 1842 John Francis attempted to assassinate Queen Victoria as she travelled by carriage with Prince Albert down Constitution Hill in London. right after he had tried to shoot her just the previous day.
In June 13, 1842, Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to travel by rail, proclaiming the journey “delightful and so quick” despite her nerves.
The Prince had spotted Francis – whom he described as “a little, swarthy, ill looking rascal” – pulling out a pistol, which then failed to fire. Yet they still drove the same route the following day, giving Francis a second crack. He was sentenced to death, but the Queen insisted the sentence be commuted to banishment for life.
This portrait, known as ‘the secret picture’ was commissioned by the young Queen in 1843 as a 24th birthday present for her beloved husband Albert. Victoria also 24 at the time, referred to it as ‘my darling Albert’s favourite picture’. He particularly like the way her hair half released from its traditional knot, cascaded down her back.
Alice was born on 25 April 1843 at Buckingham Palace. She was christened “Alice Maud Mary” on 2 June 1843. She was named Alice to honour Victoria’s first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, who had once commented that the name Alice was his favourite name. Maud the Anglo-Saxon name for Matilda was chosen in honour of one of Alice’s godparents, Princess Sophia Matilda of Gloucester. Mary was chosen because Alice was born on the same day as her great-aunt the Duchess of Gloucester
Ireland was hit by a potato blight. The next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine. In Ireland, Victoria was labelled “The Famine Queen”.
Prince Alfred was born at Windsor Castle on 6 August 1844. His godparents were his mother’s first cousin, Prince George of Cambridge, his paternal aunt, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Queen Victoria’s brother Carl, Prince of Leiningen
She personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to about £2.57 million in 2016 terms to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor, and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.
The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.
Peel’s ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the “Peelites”), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.
Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain. She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs.
In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d’Eu in Normandy she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French one since the meeting of Henry VIII of and Francis I on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.
It was on this first trip Victoria and Albert were heard to have a loud argument, Victoria in order to fit in with the French ladies wore ruge on her lips and cheeks and shimmer on her decolletage. Albert said she looked like she belonged in a brothel rather than a palace.
Princess Helena was born at Buckingham Palace on 25 May 1846, the day after her mother’s 27th birthday. Albert reported to his brother, Ernest that Helena “came into this world quite blue but she is quite well now”. He added that the Queen “suffered longer and more than the other times and she will have to remain very quiet to recover.”
When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign. Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.
Louise was born on 18 March 1848 at Buckingham Palace Her birth coincided with revolutions which swept across Europe prompting the Queen to remark that Louise would turn out to be “something peculiar”. The Queen’s labour with Louise was the first to be aided with chloroform
At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House, a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.
Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850 His godparents were Prince William of Prussia his great-uncle’s sister-in-law, Princess Bernard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and the Duke of Wellington, with whom he shared his birthday and after whom he was named
Russell’s ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen. She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen. Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge
It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government’s approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister. The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell’s administration had been replaced by a short lived government led by Lord Derby.
The Stuart Ball at Buckingham Palace, 13 June 1851. The third costume ball at the Palace evoked the reign of Charles II. Victoria liked the pageantry and theatrics of themed balls
Leopold was born on 7 April 1853 at Buckingham Palace. During labour, Queen Victoria chose to use chloroform and thus sanctioned the use of anesthesia in childbirth. His godparents were King George V of Hanover his fourth cousin once removed, Princess William of Prussia his first cousin once removed, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge and hisuncle by marriage, Prince Ernst of Hohenlohe Langenburg.
Victoria most likely suffered from postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies. Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold’s birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her “continuance of hysterics” over a “miserable trifle”
In early 1855, the government of Lord George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.
Napoleon III, since the Crimean War Britain’s closest ally visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit. Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris. They visited the Exposition Universelle and Napoleon I’s tomb at Les Invalides and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles
14 April 1857 Beatrice was born at Buckingham Palace. The birth caused controversy when it was announced that Queen Victoria would seek relief from the pains of delivery through the use of chloroform, Queen Victoria was undeterred and used “that blessed chloroform” for her last pregnancy. A fortnight later Queen Victoria reported in her journal, “I was amply rewarded and forgot all I had gone through when I heard dearest Albert say ‘It’s a fine child, and a girl!’
From birth, Beatrice became a favoured child Victoria once remarked that Beatrice was “a pretty, plump and flourishing child with fine large blue eyes” she was known to dislike most babies and had previously said “all babies are ugly and resemble frogs”.
Despite her many pregnancies, Victoria seems not to have liked babies very much. “Abstractedly I have no tender for them till they have become a little human” she once wrote. “An ugly baby is a very nasty object – and the prettiest is frightful when undressed.” Later she wrote to her eldest daughter that she was “no admirer of babies generally” and had been repulsed by her sons Bertie and Leopold (“frightful”).
When Victoria’s doctor warned the 38-year-old queen against having a 10th child she cared about one thing, asking “Am I not to have any more fun in bed?” And there were few effective forms of contraception available at the time.
On 25 January 1858, a royal wedding took place that was designed to align the fortunes of Europe’s two most important powers, Great Britain and Germany’s chief principality Prussia. The bride was Victoria or “Vicky, Princess Royal”, she married Prince Frederick of Prussia, later Frederick III, German Emperor and King of Prussia.
On 27 January 1859 Queen Victoria’s first grandchild was born the future German Emperor William II. The delivery was extremely complicated, the baby suffered damage at the brachial plexus and the nerves in his arm were injured. his left arm was 15 cm shorterthan the right. Princess Charlotte arrived nineteen months later. Queen Victoria wanted her named after her. The Prussians wanted her named Charlotte after Empress Alexandra Charlotte of Prussia. As a compromise, her first name was Victoria but she was always referred as Charlotte.
During a trip to Coburg in the autumn of 1860 he was driving alone in a carriage drawn by four horses that suddenly bolted. As the horses continued to gallop toward a stationary wagon waiting at a railway crossing, Albert jumped for his life from the carriage. One of the horses was killed in the collision, and Albert was badly shaken. He told his brother and eldest daughter that he sensed his time had come
In March 1861, Victoria’s mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother’s papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for “wickedly” estranging her from her mother.
To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief, Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.
Princess Helena began an early flirtation with her father’s former librarian, Carl Ruland, following his appointment to the Royal Household on the recommendation of Baron Stockmar. He was trusted enough to teach German to Helena’s brother, and was described by the Queen as “useful and able”. When the Queen discovered that Helena had grown romantically attached to a royal servant, he was promptly dismissed back to his native Germany, and he never lost the Queen’s hostility
Albert was informed that gossip was spreading in gentlemen’s clubs and the foreign press that the Prince of Wales was still involved with Nellie Clifden. Albert and Victoria were horrified by their son’s indiscretion. Although Albert was ill and at a low ebb, he travelled to Cambridge to see the Prince of Wales on 25 November to discuss his son’s indiscreet affair.
Albert was diagnosed with typhoid fever and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated. She blamed her husband’s death on worry over the Prince of Wales’s philandering. He had been “killed by that dreadful business” she said. She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life.
She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years. Her seclusion earned her the nickname “widow of Windsor”.
Victoria’s self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement She did undertake her official government duties yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle.
On 1 July 1862, in the dining room of Osborne House on the Isle of Wight Princess Alice married Prince Louis of Hesse. The venue was chosen so that the Queen was able to avoid inviting the usual guests of state.
The Queen confided to her journal..
Preparations were made for Edward’s engagement which was sealed at Laeken in Belgium on 9 September 1862. Edward married Alexandra of Denmark at St George’s Chapel Windsor Castle on 10 March 1863. He was 21 she was 18. The couple established Marlborough House as their London residence and Sandringham House Norfolk as their country retreat.
Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown. The Queen’s daughters joked that Brown was “Mama’s lover” while Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, wrote in his diary that Brown and Victoria slept in adjoining rooms “contrary to etiquette and even decency”. Victoria herself dismissed the chatter as “ill- natured gossip in the higher classes”
A recently discovered letter written by Victoria
shortly after Brown’s death, to Viscount Cranbrook,
reveals the true extent of the loss…
The phrase “life for the second time” relates to the death of her husband Prince Albert. The historian who discovered the letter believed that it suggested that Victoria, in her mind equated Brown’s death with Albert’s, and that she therefore viewed him as more than a servant. Whether Brown and Victoria were actual lovers however, is not known.
Prince Henry of Prussia Victoria’s grandchild by her eldest child Victoria was born in Berlin on 14 August 1862
In 1863, the Queen looked for a husband for Helena. As a middle child the prospect of a powerful alliance with a royal house was low. Her appearance was also a concern, as by the age of fifteen she was described as chunky, dowdy and double-chinned. Victoria insisted that Helena’s future husband had to be prepared to live near the Queen, thus keeping her daughter nearby.
Her choice eventually fell on Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein; however, the match was politically awkward, and caused a severe breach within the royal family. The marriage, therefore, horrified King Christian IX of Denmark’s daughter, Alexandra, Princess of Wales, who exclaimed: “The Duchies belong to Papa.”
Alice, openly accused her mother of sacrificing Helena’s happiness for the Queen’s convenience. Despite the political controversies and their age difference he was fifteen years her senior Helena was happy with Christian and was determined to marry him
The wedding took place at Windsor Castle. She wore a dress of white satin featuring deep flounces of Honiton lace, the design of which featured roses, ivy, and myrtle
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild George V was born on 3 June 1865 He was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865.
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Prince Sigismund of Prussia was the fourth child of Victoria Princess Royal died aged 22 months old from meningitis at the New Palace on 18 June 1866. Queen Victoria said she didn’t understand the feelings of her daughter and considered that the loss of a child was “much less severe than that of a husband”.
Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli who charmed Victoria “Everyone likes flattery,” he said “and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel.” With the phrase “we authors, Ma’am”, he complimented her
Disraeli’s ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone’s demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were “a public meeting rather than a woman”
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Maud of Wales was born on 26 November 1869. She was christened “Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria” at Marlborough House
Princess Victoria wrote to her mother of her guilt for having given birth to a disabled child. “He is really smart for his age… if only he didn’t had that unfortunate arm, I would be so proud of him.” Princess Victoria ended up distancing herself from her first-born which made a great impact on the behaviour of the future William II. Strange methods, such as the so-called “animal baths” in which the arm was immersed in the entrails of recently dead rabbits, were performed with some regularity
In 1870, republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen’s seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic. A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria’s removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her. In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Listee successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein daughter of Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (Victoria Louise Sophia Augusta Amelia Helena) was born 3 May 1870
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Sophia of Prussia was born to Victoria, Princess Royal and Frederick III, German Emperoron on 14 June 1870
As a daughter of the Queen, Louise was a desirable bride more so as she is regarded as the Queen’s most beautiful daughter by both contemporary and modern biographers. Her liberalism and feminism beliefs prompted the Queen to find her a husband.
Louise viewed marriage to any prince as undesirable, and announced that she wished to marry John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, heir to the Dukedom of Argyll. No such marriage, between a daughter of a Sovereign and a British subject, had been given official recognition since 1515, when Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk married King Henry VIII’s sister Mary.
The wedding took place on 21 March 1871, three days after her twenty-third birthday, at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. Louise wore a white silk wedding gown, heavily decorated with national and royal symbols, with deep flounces of flower-strewn Honiton lace, and a short wedding veil of Honiton lace that she designed herself and was held in place by two diamond daisy hair pins presented by her siblings, Arthur, Leopold and Beatrice.
A duchess presented the Queen with an ostrich egg on which she had written her own name. “You would think,” whispered the Queen, “that she had it herself!”
In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die. As the tenth anniversary of her husband’s death approached her son’s condition grew no better, and Victoria’s distress continued. To general rejoicing, he pulled through
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse) daughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom was born on 6 June 1872 at the New Palace in Darmstadt as Princess Alix Viktoria Helene Luise Beatrix (the names of her mother and each of her mother’s four sisters)
On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O’Connor (great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O’Connor) waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria’s open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O’Connor was later sentenced to 12 months’ imprisonment. As a result of the incident, Victoria’s popularity recovered further.
After the Indian Rebellion, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain’s possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire.
The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides. She wrote of “her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war”, and insisted that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state “should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration”.
At her behest, a reference threatening the “undermining of native religions and customs” was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.
In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported preferring short simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.
On 23 January 1874, the Duke of Edinburgh married the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia at the Winter Palace, St Petersburg. The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh made their public entry into London on 12 March. The marriage however was not a happy one and the bride was thought spoiled and haughty by London Society.
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Marie of Edinburgh, more commonly known as Marie of Romania Daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh was born on 29 October 1875, at 10:30 am. The baptism, “of a strictly private nature”, took place on 15 December 1875.
On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert’s death Victoria’s second daughter Alice died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the dates as “almost incredible and most mysterious”.
Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.
Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: “It is not in our custom to annexe countries”, she said, “unless we are obliged & forced to do so.”
At St. George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle, on 13 March 1879, Arthur married Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia. The couple received a great number of expensive gifts the Queen’s gift consisted of a diamond tiara, a pearl and diamond pendant. Many members of England and Germany’s royal families attended.
Victoria’s first great-grandchild Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen was born on 12 May 1879.
To Victoria’s dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister. When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by “fast falling tears” and erected a memorial tablet “placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I.”
On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean a disgruntled poet offended by Victoria’s refusal to accept one of his poems, shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.
Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity, but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was “worth being shot at to see how much one is loved”
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Princess Margaret of Connaught Daughter of Prince Arthur was born 15 January 1882 at Bagshot Park and baptised in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle on 11 March 1882.
After rejection from 6 women due to his haemophilia Prince Leopold had given up on marriage, Victoria stepped in to bar what she saw as unsuitable possibilities. Insisting that the children of British monarchs should marry into other reigning Protestant families, Victoria suggested a meeting with Princess Helene Friederike.
on 27 April 1882 Prince Leopold wed Princess Helena in St. George’s Chapel Windsor Castle. Prince Leopold gave his bride a diamond necklace, a large diamond star, a ruby bracelet, a ruby and diamond bracelet sapphire and diamond earrings, Spanish lace, and a fan.
On 17 March 1883, she fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.
Prince Leopold had haemophilia diagnosed in childhood. On 27 March at his Cannes residence the ‘Villa Nevada’, he slipped and fell injuring his knee and hitting his head. He died in the early hours of the next morning, apparently from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was buried in the Albert Memorial Chapel at Windsor.
Princess Beatrice had many suitors but her mother was protective of her something she had not been with any of her other children and wanted Beatrice to stay with her. When Beatrice returned from Darmstadt and told her mother she planned to marry, the Queen reacted with frightening silence. Although they remained side by side, the Queen did not talk to her for seven months, instead communicating by note
Victoria’s behaviour, unexpected even by her family eemed prompted by the threatened loss of her daughter. The Queen regarded Beatrice as her “Baby” her innocent child and viewed the physical sex that would come with marriage as an end to her innocence. Victoria consented to the marriage on condition that Henry give up his German commitments and live permanently with Beatrice and herself
Beatrice and Prince Henry of Battenberg were married at Saint Mildred’s Church at Whippingham near Osborne on 23 July 1885. Beatrice wore her mother’s wedding veil of Honiton lace and was escorted by the Queen and her eldest brother the Prince of Wales. The Queen, taking leave of them, “bore up bravely till the departure and then fairly gave way” as she later admitted to the Princess.
Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated. She thought his government was “the worst I have ever had”. Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury.
Salisbury’s government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a “half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man”
Queen Victoria’s granddaughter Princess Patricia of Connaught was born 17 March 1886 St Patrick’s Day, at Buckingham Palace in London. Her father was Prince Arthur Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She was baptized Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth at Bagshot Park on 1 May 1886.
In 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey. By this time Victoria was once again extremely popular
Two days later on 23 June, she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was promoted to “Munshi” teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk. Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.
Equerry Frederick Ponsonby discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to the Viceroy of India “the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do.” Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.
The Queen criticised Beatrice’s conduct during her first pregnancy. When Beatrice stopped coming to the Queen’s dinners a week before giving birth, preferring to eat alone in her room.
The Queen wrote angrily to her
physician, Dr James Reid…
Karim was constantly at her side, even spending a night alone with her in her cottage in the Scottish Highlands. Karim cooked Victoria “a fine Indian meal: chicken curry, daal, and a fragrant pilau.” In a diary entry on Aug. 20, 1887, the queen noted “Had some excellent curry prepared by one of my Indian servants.” curries feature on Victoria’s menus twice a week as a lunch dish (chicken curry) on Sundays and as a dinner dish (fish curry) on Tuesdays.
Queen Victoria’s youngest grandchild Princess Beatrice’s son Prince Maurice of Battenberg was born on 3 October 1891. The Prince served in World War I as a lieutenant in the King’s Royal Rifle Corps, and was killed at just 23 years old in service in the Ypres Salient in 1914. He is buried in Ypres Town Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery.
Rumours spread in In 1890 that Victoria’s daughter Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll was having an affair with Arthur Bigge the Queen’s assistant private secretary. Beatrice mentioned the rumours to the Queen calling it a “scandal” Louise denied the rumour claiming that it was started by Beatrice and Helena to undermine her position at court. Queen Victoria ordered her away saying it was for the good of her health.
On 3 December 1891 Queen Victoria’s Grandson Prince Albert Victor who was second in line to the throne proposed to Mary of Teck, The wedding was set for 27 February 1892. He fell ill with influenza and died at Sandringham House in Norfolk on 14 January 1892.
On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in English, Scottish, and British history.
The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul’s Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen
Martha Ann Erskine was born a slave in Tennessee, her father purchased the entire family and moved them to Liberia in 1830. She admired Queen Victoria. For 25 years she worked on an intricate cotton silk quilt depicting a Liberian coffee tree in bloom that she hoped to present to the Queen.
They met in Windsor Castle on Saturday, 16 July 1892. Surrounded by courtiers, her children and grandchildren, Queen Victoria told Martha that she “felt greatly honoured by the trouble you have taken to come to see me,” In her diary the Queen described Martha as “very loyal with a kind face. I shook hands with her and she kept holding and shaking mine”.
Queen Victoria’s Grandchild Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was severely depressed he suffered from nervous depression, had syphilisand and had a secret marriage his family thought undesirable. He shot himself with a revolver he survived for three days. Alfred died at 4:15 pm on 6 February 1899, aged 24 years.
Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.
Queen Victoria’s Son Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha died of throat cancer on 30 July 1900.
For months, Queen Victoria’s health had been failing. She had lost her appetite and started looking frail and thin. She would tire more easily and would often have bouts of confusion.
Then, on January 17, 1901, Queen Victoria’s health took a severe turn for the worse. When the queen woke up, her personal physician, Dr James Reid, noticed that the left side of her face had started to sag. Also, her speech had become slightly slurred. She had suffered one of several small strokes.
By the following day, the queen’s health was worse. She laid in bed all day, unaware of who was by her bedside. Early in the morning of January 19, Queen Victoria seemed to rally. She asked Dr. Reid if she were better, to which he assured her that she was. However very soon thereafter, she again slipped out of consciousness.
It had become obvious to Dr. Reid that Queen Victoria was dying. He summoned her children and grandchildren. At 6:30 p.m. on January 22, 1901, Queen Victoria died surrounded by her family, at the Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
Queen Victoria had left very detailed instructions as to how she wanted her funeral. This included very specific things she wanted inside her coffin. Many of the items were from her beloved husband Albert who had died 40 years earlier in 1861.
On January 25, 1901, Dr. Reid carefully placed the items that Queen Victoria had requested in the bottom of her coffin. These things included Albert’s dressing gown, a plaster cast of Albert’s hand and photographs.
When that was done, Queen Victoria’s body was lifted into the coffin. Then, as instructed, Dr. Reid helped place Queen Victoria’s wedding veil over her face and, once the others had departed placed a picture of John Brown in her right hand which he covered with some flowers.
On February 1, 1901, Queen Victoria’s coffin was moved from Osborne House and placed on the ship Alberta, which carried the queen’s coffin across the Solent to Portsmouth. On February 2 the coffin was transported by train to Victoria Station in London, then to Paddington.
The streets along the funeral route were crowded with spectators who wanted to get a last glimpse of the queen. As the carriage passed by, everyone remained silent.
On the evening of February 4 1901 Victoria’s coffin was taken by gun carriage to Frogmore Mausoleum, which she had built for her beloved Albert upon his death. Above the mausoleum’s doors, Queen Victoria had inscribed, “Vale desideratissime. Farewell most beloved. Here at length I shall rest with thee, with thee in Christ I shall rise again.”
Through Victoria’s reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.
Victoria’s links with Europe’s royal families earned her the nickname “the grandmother of Europe”. Victoria and Albert had 42 grandchildren
Queen Victoria’s eldest child Victoria, Princess Royal died just 7 months after her mother on the 5th August 1901 As per her instructions her corpse was stripped naked, wrapped in the Union Jack and buried according to the rites of the Church of England. She was buried next to her husband in the royal mausoleum of the Friedenskirche at Potsdam.
Upon Queen Victoria’s death, Beatrice began the momentous task of transcribing and editing her mother’s journals, which had been kept since 1831. The hundreds of volumes contained the Queen’s personal views of the day-to-day business of her life and included personal and family matters as well as matters of state.
Queen Victoria with her nine children,
six of their spouses,
and 23 grandchildren
The Accession Dress, originally black but now faded to brown, features what curators have described as a “very petite” waist, believed to measure around 22 inches the equivalent of a UK size 6
A pair of Queen Victoria’s bloomers from the 1890s which sport a 50-inch waist
A Scarf made by Queen Victoria for Boar War hero sold for £12,000
Victoria’s breakfast usually included porridge, fish, eggs on toast, ‘fancy breads’, and in later years, finnan haddies, a form of smoked haddock. she did not necessarily eat everything on offer but felt it was important to have a choice.
Dinners might entail soup, fish, cold boiled chicken or roast beef, dessert and fruits, pineapples grown specially for the royal household. She was also a fan of seasonal eating: “She never permits her own table or that of her household to be served with anything that is out of season,” “Her Majesty confesses to a great weakness for potatoes, which are cooked for her in every conceivable way,”
Mulled wine, ice creams, cakes, and pastrieswere her desert choice in 1870. In 1901 she had a great appetite for: “chocolate sponges, plain sponges, wafers of two or three different shapes, langues de chat, biscuits andcakes of all kinds, tablets, petit fours, princess and rice cakes, pralines, almond sweets, and a large variety of mixed sweets.” “Her Majesty is very fond of all kinds of pies, and a cranberry tart with cream is her favourite dish”.
In contrast, Victoria’s children were fed on the plain roasts and broths that she viewed as appropriate for the nursery. She also selected the meals of her grandchildren using a violet pencil to annotate the day’s proposed menu.
Alongside tea, which “has ever ranked high in the royal favour”, the queen was also a lover of whisky, particularly in later years, when her tastes were influenced by John Brown. A small distillery near Balmoral produced a version specially for her, which she took with soda water. The queen enjoyed a glass of Atholl brose (a mixture of whisky and honey)
Queen Victoria’s favourite flowers were violets. Aged 14, Victoria wrote in her journal on the 30 March 1834, ‘Mamma gave me two very pretty little china baskets with violets, and some pretty buttons.’ This is the first entry (in a lifetime of keeping her detailed diaries) where she specifically mentions violets. Overall there are 105 references to violets with many referring to picking primroses and violets especially at Osborne.
Victoria’s British Prime Ministers
Year Prime Minister (party)
1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig)
1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative)
1846 Lord John Russell (Whig)
1852 (Feb) Earl of Derby (Conservative)
1852 (Dec) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite)
1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)
1858 Earl of Derby (Conservative)
1859 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)
1865 Earl Russell (Liberal)
1866 Earl of Derby (Conservative)
1868 (Feb Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1868 (Dec) William Gladstone (Liberal)
1874 Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1880 William Gladstone (Liberal)
1885 Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1886 (Feb) William Gladstone (Liberal)
1886 (Jul) Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1892 William Gladstone (Liberal)
1894 Earl of Rosebery (Liberal)
1895 Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
On screen, Victoria has been portrayed by…
Rose Tapley in the silent short The Victoria Cross (1912)
Louie Henri in the silent film Sixty Years a Queen (1913)
Mrs. Henry Lytton in the silent film Disraeli (1916)
Blanche Graham in the silent film Livingstone (1925)
Julia Faye in the silent film The Yankee Clipper (1927)
Marion Drada in the silent film Balaclava (1928)
Margaret Mann in Disraeli (1929)
Madeleine Ozeray in the German French-language
musical Court Waltzes (1933)
Hanna Waag (de) in the German film Waltz War (1933)
Pamela Stanley in David Livingstone (1936) and Marigold (1938)
Fay Holden in The White Angel (1936),
Jenny Jugo in the German romantic comedy Victoria in Dover (1936)
Yvette Pienne in the French comedy Pearls of the Crown (1937)
Anna Neagle in the biopics Victoria the Great (1937) and Sixty Glorious Years (1938)
Beryl Mercer in The Little Princess (1939)
Fay Compton in The Prime Minister (1941)
Evelyn Beresford in Buffalo Bill (1944)
Irene Dunne in The Mudlark (1950)
Muriel Aked in The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan (1953)
Romy Schneider in the West German biopic Victoria in Dover (1954)
Avis Bunnage in the comedy The Wrong Box (1966)
Mollie Maureen in The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (1970)
Peter Sellers in The Great McGonagall (1974)
Judi Dench in Mrs. Brown (1997)
Gemma Jones in Shanghai Knights (2003)
Kathy Bates in Around the World in 80 Days (2004)
Emily Blunt in The Young Victoria (2009)
Judi Dench in Victoria and Abdul (2017)
On television, Victoria has been portrayed by…
Helen Hayes in Victoria Regina (1951)
Renée Asherson in the BBC drama series Happy and Glorious (1952)
Judi Meredith in The Consort (1957)
Julie Harris in the American
drama Victoria Regina (1961)
Patricia Routledge in the Granada
Television series Victoria Regina (1964)
Jane Connell in an episode of the
American sitcom Bewitched (1967)
Perlita Neilson and Mavis Edwards in the BBC
drama series Fall of Eagles (1974)
Michael Palin in Monty Python’s Flying Circus
titled “Michael Ellis” (1974)
Annette Crosbie in the ATV drama series Edward the Seventh (1975)
Shirley Steedman in the British series East Lynne (1976)
Rosemary Leach in the ATV drama series Disraeli (1978)
Sheila Reid in the LWT drama series Lillie (1978)
Bronwen Mantel in the drama Barnum (1986)
Miriam Margolyes in the BBC comedy Blackadder’s Christmas Carol (1988)
Victoria Hamilton in the miniseries
Victoria & Albert (2001)
Prunella Scales in the BBC drama Station
Jim (2001) and in the BBC drama documentary
Looking for Victoria (2003)
Janine Duvitski in the BBC drama The
Young Visiters (2003)
Pauline Collins in the episode of the BBC
series Doctor Who titled “Tooth and Claw” (2006)
Robert Webb in a comedy sketch on the show
That Mitchell and Webb Look (2006)
Jenna Coleman in the ITV series Victoria (2016)
of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Empress of India
24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901
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